Studebaker a disparut pe bune in martie 1966. In acel moment, a fost cea mai veche fabrica de automobile din lume, dar acest fapt a fost mai interesant pentru istorici decat pentru actionari. In 1852, fratii Henry si Clem Studebaker au parasit California. Isi facusera bani construind vagoane acoperite de la multi sapatori de aur. S-au stabilit apoi in South Bend, unde au inceput o fabrica de autocare. abigail fraser porn In 1902, si-au construit prima masina electrica. 1.841 dintre aceste masini au fost vandute.
A fost nevoie pana in 1912 pentru a fi construit primul Studebaker cu motor pe benzina. In 1913, gama era compusa din trei modele diferite, doua cu un patru cilindri si unul cu un motor cu sase cilindri. sister help porn In 1920, Studebaker a oprit constructia de trasuri. Compania a inceput sa se concentreze complet pe masini. Aceasta activitate s-a dovedit a fi foarte profitabila, iar in 1922 compania a avut deja o cifra de afaceri de 100 de milioane de dolari.
Pe atunci, compania a construit in primul rand masini mari. Ultimul mic model cu un motor cu patru cilindri a fost terminat in 1919, de atunci compania a fabricat doar motoare cu sase cilindri. blackmail mom porn In 1926, Studebaker a prezentat Erskine, un model ieftin cu un motor cu sase cilindri destinat special exportului. Intre timp, Studebaker a devenit o mare companie: in 1925, compania a fabricat pentru prima data peste 100 000 de automobile. In 1928, au fost aproximativ 21.000 de salarii, iar marca a fost pe locul cinci pe lista producatorilor de automobile americane. Afacerile au fost bune, dar noul director Albert Erskine a facut cateva greseli cruciale. demon porn gif
El a preluat functia de presedinte in 1919 si l-a vazut pe Studebaker in anii 1930, dar aceste greseli l-au costat pe Studebaker si, intr-adevar, Erskine insusi foarte drag. Masina de scurta durata pe care o numise el insusi a fost urmata de achizitionarea lui Pierce-Arrow in 1928, in timpul Depresiunii profunde. El a introdus cel mai mic motor cu 6 cilindri in Rockne, o marca minora care a durat doar in perioada 1932-1933 si a numit unul dintre serialele „Dictator” intr-o perioada in care Mussolini si Hitler erau la putere. Uimitor, numele a fost pastrat pana in 1937.
Cand Studebaker s-a mutat in anii 1930, gama era formata din Dictator si comandant, Studebaker sase si presedinte opt, cu o alegere din sase motoare. trippy porn In 1931 si-au taiat ofertele pentru seria Dictator, Comandant si Presedinte.
Erskine a platit inca dividende in 1931, dar proveneau din rezervele de capital ale companiei si el a facut si o incercare esuata la o fuziune cu White Motors. Vanzarile au scazut si cand Studebaker a intrat in primire in 1933, Erskine si-a dat demisia. S-a sinucis la scurt timp.
Studebaker a fost salvat de Harold S. ebony rape porn Vance, vicepresedintele de productie si Paul G. Hoffman, vicepresedintele de vanzari, care urmau sa ghideze compania pana in 1949. Au scapat de Pierce-Arrow, au ridicat liniile de asamblare in functiune. din nou si a aratat un profit mic in 1934, permitandu-le sa obtina mai multe credite.
In 1935 au fost oferite doar trei serii, dictatorul sase, comandantul opt si presedintele opt. gay ghost porn Firma s-a concentrat pe Dictator si Presedinte
intre 1936 si 1937.
In 1938, Raymond Loewy, seful companiei Loewy Associates, o firma din afara, i-a restilat pe Studebakers cu faruri montate in fata. Stilul frontal pentru 1939 semana cu Lincoln Zephyr, avand un nas ascutit si doua grile ingrijite jos pe ambele parti. Noua serie „Champion” a fost introdusa in acelasi an, ceea ce a crescut considerabil vanzarile, iar pana in 1940, Champion era disponibil sub forma de trei si cinci coupe de pasageri si doua sau patru portiere.
Pentru 1941, intreaga gama a fost re-lucrata, iar Campionul si Comandantul au fost oferite in trei stiluri de trim. 1980 porn movies Topul gamei Skyway President Land Cruiser a fost introdus.
Al doilea razboi mondial a pus capat productiei de masini in 1942, cand Studebaker si-a indreptat atentia asupra camioanelor, motoarelor de avioane si transportatorilor personalului Weasel.
At the end of the war, most companies had to start again with new cars for public use, but Studebaker used the expertise of Loewy Associates and were able to introduce an all new design in Spring 1946, which included the unique ‘coming or going’ huge wraparound rear window of the two door ‘Starlight’ coupe designs.
Until the new cars were ready, a small quantity of face-lifted 1942 ‘Skyway Champions’ in three or five passenger coupes and two and four door sedans were offered.
The 1947 Studebaker designs from the Loewy studio were slightly modified by Virgil Exner. mc porn Commander and Champion names were re-introduced that year, but without the ‘Skyway’ prefix and a new Regal Deluxe convertible was offered. The Commander Land Cruiser was Studebaker’s luxury sedan.
1950 sales were the best ever, until the unexpected arrival of a huge spinner shape in the centre of the grille in line with the headlamps. Despite the fact
that sales figures dropped, the grille was retained for the 1951 models.
But the styling was so far ahead of the competition that it wasn’t changed between 1947 and 1952 – Studebaker’s Centenary Year – whan the whole Studebaker range was re-designed and the spinner was replaced by a ‘toothy’ grille referred to as the ‘Clam Digger’. polar porn A new ‘Starliner’ hardtop was introduced, but sales still fell.
In 1953, Robert Bourke from the Loewy team designed a brand new, very low, coupe purely as a Show model.
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It was hailed as the ‘New European Look’. After revising a few of it’s features, Raymond Loewy presented it to Studebaker and the car went into production as two and four door sedans and two types of coupe. Unfortunately, changeover to the new model caused delays and even more critically, the demand for the coupe was four times higher than the sedans, when management had planned for the reverse situation. jessica weaver porn
A price comparison with comparable Chevrolet models to discover why sales were so bad revealed that the higher paid workers at Studebaker were producing less than other companies. Also, higher overheads and the isolated location of the South Bend plant from component suppliers, plus the highly productive Big Three’s price wars were crippling the lesser companies.
In 1954, James Nance, the president of Packard bought Studebaker to become the Studebaker-Packard Corporation with the intention of their combined entry into the market becoming one of the ‘Big Four’. What Nance apparently didn’t know was that Studebaker were well below their ‘break-even’ point of 250,000 cars per year with sales only around the 116,000 mark, so the merger did absolutely nothing for Packard.
Nance began to search for financing, but this eventually resulted in a take-over by Curtis-Wright. porn hub vids
The firm restyled for 1956, using the old bodyshells which were squared off and more upright with mesh-type grilles and a cheap two door known as the ‘Sedanet’ was offered in the Commander and Champion series. The long wheelbase chassis was now only used for the top of the range President Classic sedan and the four new sporty ‘Hawk’ series called ‘Power’ with a V8 engine, ‘Flight’ with a 6 cylinder engine, both based on the pillar type Starlight coupe, plus the ‘Sky Hawk’ and ‘Golden Hawk’ based on the old Starliner hardtop.
The 1956 Golden Hawk was fitted with a large Packard engine which made it extremely front heavy, so for the 1958/1959 model it was replaced by a V8 engine and a Paxton supercharger that gave the same power output, but was more efficient. The other Hawks were replaced by the single pillar Silver Hawk with an unblown engine.
Things got worse from 1956 to 1958 when the combined total of cars turned out between Studebaker and Packard was only 70,000 per year. mom and aunt porn Studebaker hit rock bottom in 1958 when less than 45,000 cars were sold.
1959 saw the introduction of the compact ‘Lark’ created by stylist Duncan McRea which used body panels and parts off models dating from 1953 to 1958. The Lark was offered as a two door sedan, a two door station wagon and a two door hardtop with a 6 cylinder or V8 engine and 48,459 were sold in 1959. Only the Silver Hawk was offered at the same time and Studebaker were in a profit situation for the first time in six years.
In 1960, the Big Three introduced their new compacts. sfm porn gif
The Lark was given mild alterations to the grille and script. The Hawk was unchanged, excellent value and performed well, but the main advertising was for the Lark which hampered sales of the Hawk.
For 1961, the Lark was given a modest facelift and a new Lark ‘Cruiser’ was introduced. The Hawk was given an optional four speed gearbox and received
two-tone treatment at the base of the body fins.
Sherwood Egbert became company President in early 1961 and he asked stylist Brooks Stevens to help restyle both the Lark and the Hawk. bleureign porn Studebaker were distributing Mercedes-Benz cars at the time and one of the features that appeared on the new design was a rectangular Mercedes look-alike grille.
The sporty Lark Daytona hardtop and convertible made their debut. For the Hawk, Stevens re-skinned the old loewy coupe, eliminating the out-dated fins and called it the ‘Gran Tourismo’ Hawk and general sales picked up in 1962, although sales of the Lark started to drop.
A slight re-work for the 1963 models saw the Lark’s body given thinner pillars and the grille modified slightly. Several small ‘creature comfort’ additions
were given to the interior. ana lorde porn Stevens also came up with the ‘Wagonaire’ station car that had a sliding rear roof panel. The Hawk was given a new grille similar
to the Lark and round amber parking lights. Inside, it had a wood-like dashboard and pleated vinyl seats.
Without doubt, Studebakers saviour could have been the Avanti, introduced in 1963.
The original Avanti was instigated by Sherwood Egbert in 1960. jasamine banks porn He realised that a face-lift to the current Studebaker range couldn’t compete with the completely new compacts produced by the Big Three that year. Despite a slight increase in sales, he knew that this wouldn’t last and decided to go for a new sports-type car. He again turned to Raymond Loewy who’s contract had lapsed after completion of the 1956 Hawk series.
Loewy and a team of talented designers rented a house in Palm Springs, California and created the fibreglass bodied ‘Avanti’, a revolutionary breakaway
from normal styling. Apparently devoid of any kind of air intake, a large scoop was positioned virtually out of sight under the front bumper. natali nemtchinova porn The inside had
crash protection padding, an aircraft style dashboard and four slim bucket seats.
Unfortunately, although the design had been approved with very few modifications, the distortion of the bodies during the curing process accounted
for much of the delay in getting the Avanti into production and customers that had placed orders cancelled in favour of alternatives such as the Chevrolet
Corvette. Despite successes in stock car speed trials at Bonneville, fewer than 4600 Studebaker Avanti’s were produced before the company closed the South Bend plant and moved to Hamilton, Canada in late 1963.
The Avanti name, the production rights and a small part of the South Bend plant were sold to two ex-Studebaker dealers who called their new car the Avanti II.
In Hamilton, Studebaker continued with new Brooks Stevens designs for 1964. The ‘bread and butter’ range was now comprised of the Challenger, Commander, Daytona, Cruiser and Wagonaire, without the Lark prefix, although there was a Super Lark, Super Hawk and Gran Tourismo Hawk with a partial vinyl top.
The 1965 cars were identical in appearance but Chevrolet engines were used now that the South Bend engine plant had gone.
The last Studebaker, the 66, had a new front end with two dual beam headlamps instead of four separate lights and a revised grille. But despite desperate attempts to revive Studebaker, the Hamilton plant closed in March 1966.
The Studebaker Corporation purchased the Wagner Electric Corporation in 1967 and combined with Worthington Corporation that same year to become Studebaker-Worthington Corporation. They were bought by McGraw Edison in 1979 who have retained the name, but there is no production line.
Source: Reg J. Prosser