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Decretum Gratiani / Decretum Gratiani – 英文 万维 百科 / 维基 百科 中文 版

Pagina din manuscrisul medieval al Decretum Gratiani .

Decretum Gratiani , de asemenea , cunoscut sub numele de discordantium canonum Concordia sau concordantia discordantium canonum sau pur si simplu ca Decretum , este o colectie de drept canonic , compilat si scris in secolul al 12 – lea ca un manual juridic de catre juristul cunoscut sub numele de Gratian . Formeaza prima parte a colectiei de sase texte legale, care au devenit impreuna cunoscute sub numele de Corpus Juris Canonici . A fost folosit de canonistii Bisericii Romano-Catolice pana la Rusalii (19 mai 1918), cand un Cod revizuit de drept canonic ( Codex Iuris Canonici ) promulgat de Papa Benedict al XV-lea la 27 mai 1917 a obtinut forta juridica. [1]

Prezentare generala

In jurul anului 1150 Gratian, profesor de teologie la manastirea Sfintilor Nabor si Felix si uneori credea ca a fost un calugar camaldolese, [2] a compus opera pe care a numit-o Concordia discordantium canonum , iar altele au intitulat Nova colectie, Decreta, Corpus juris canonici sau numele mai des acceptat, Decretum Gratiani . El a facut acest lucru pentru a evita dificultatile care au determinat studiul teologiei practice si externe (theologia practica externa), adica studiul dreptului canonic. In ciuda reputatiei sale de mare si de difuzie larg, Decretum nu a fost niciodata recunoscuta de Biserica ca o colectie oficiala. [ Necesita citare ]

Este impartit in trei parti ( ministeria, negocierea, sacramenta ). Prima parte este impartita in 101 distinctii ( primele distinctii ), primele 20 formand o introducere in principiile generale ale dreptului canonic (tractatus decretalium); restul constituie un tractatus ordinandorum, raportat la persoane si functii ecleziastice. A doua parte contine 36 de cauze ( cauzae ), impartite in intrebari (quaestiones) si tratare a administrarii bisericesti si a casatoriei; cea de-a treia intrebare din cea de-a 33-a cauza trateaza Taina penitenciarii si este impartita in 7 distinctii. A treia parte, intitulata „De consacrare”, trateaza sacramentele si alte lucruri sacre si contine 5 distinctii. jb porn Fiecare distinctie sau intrebare continedicta Gratiani , sau maximele lui Gratian si canoanele. Gratian insusi ridica intrebari si aduce dificultati, la care raspunde citand auctoritates, adica canoane de consilii, decreturi ale papei, texte ale Scripturii sau ale Parintilor. Acestea sunt canoanele; intreaga portiune ramasa, chiar rezumatul canoanelor si indicatiile cronologice, sunt numite maximele sau dicta Gratiani. Este de mentionat ca multe autoritati au fost introduse in „Decretum” de catre autori de o data ulterioara. Este vorba despre Paleo , asa numit din Paucapalea, numele comentatorului principal despre „Decretum”. Revizorii romani ai secolului al XVI-lea (1566–82) au corectat textul „Decretului” si au adaugat multe note critice desemnate prin cuvintele Correctores Romani.

Decretum este citat indicand numarul canonului si cel al distinctiei sau a cauzei si intrebarea. Pentru a diferentia diferentele primei parti de cele ale celei de-a treia, se pune problema celei de-a 33-a cauza a celei de-a doua parti si cele a celei de-a treia parti, cuvintele de Pon., Adica de Ponitentia si de Cons., De consacrarese adauga celor din urma. De exemplu, „c. reddit hardcore porn 1. d. XI” indica prima parte a „Decretului”. distinctia XI, canonul 1; „c. 1., de Pon., d. VI,” se refera la a doua parte, a 33-a cauza, intrebarea 3, distinctia VI, canonul 1; „c. 8, de Cons., d. II” se refera la a treia parte, distinctia II, canonul 8; „c. porn star name 8, C. XII, q. 3” se refera la partea a doua, cauza XII, intrebarea 3, canonul 8. Uneori, mai ales in cazul canoanelor cunoscute si mult citate, primele cuvinte sunt indicate si , de exemplu, c. Si quis suadente diabolo, C. XVII, q. 4, adica al 29-lea canon al celei de-a doua parti, cauza XVII, intrebarea 4. Ocazional sunt citate singure primele cuvinte. In ambele cazuri,

Autor

Gratian (latina medievala: Gratianus ) a fost un avocat canonic din Bologna. A inflorit la mijlocul secolului al XII-lea. Nu se stie altceva despre el. jenelle evans porn

Uneori, este incorect denumit Franciscus Gratianus, [3] Johannes Gratian, [2] sau Giovanni Graziano. Multa vreme se credea ca s-a nascut la sfarsitul secolului al XI-lea, la Chiusi in Toscana. S-a spus ca a devenit calugar la Camaldoli si apoi a predat la manastirea Sf. Felix din Bologna si si-a dedicat viata studierii dreptului canonic, dar bursa contemporana nu atrage credibilitate acestor traditii. [4] Inca din secolul al XI-lea, Bologna a fost centrul studiului dreptului canonic, precum si a dreptului roman, dupa Corpus Juris Civilisa fost redescoperita in vestul Europei. Opera lui Gratian a fost o incercare, folosind metoda scolastica timpurie, de a rezolva canoanele aparent contradictorii din secolele anterioare. Gratian a citat un numar mare de autoritati, incluzand Biblia, legislatia papala si conciliara, parintii bisericii, cum ar fi Augustin de la Hippo, si dreptul laic in eforturile sale de a reconcilia canoanele. Gratian a gasit un loc in Paradisul lui Dante printre medicii Bisericii: [5]

Urmatorul flamelet emite din zambetul lui Gratian, cel care a dat un astfel de ajutor sferelor ecleziastice si civile, asa cum este acceptabil in Paradis. [6] ”

El a fost mult timp apreciat ca Pater Juris Canonici (latina, „Parintele dreptului canonic”), titlu pe care il impartaseste cu succesorul sau, Sfantul Raymond din Penyafort.

Istorie textuala

Versiunea vulgata a colectiei lui Gratian a fost finalizata la un moment dat dupa cel de-al doilea Consiliu al Lateranului, pe care il citeaza. Cercetarile lui Anders Winroth au stabilit ca au supravietuit unele manuscrise ale unei versiuni timpurii a textului lui Gratian, care difera considerabil de traditia textuala curenta. animated lesbian porn [7] Cu comentarii si suplimente ulterioare, lucrarea a fost incorporata in Corpus Juris Canonici . Decretum a devenit rapid manualul standard pentru studentii de drept canonic , in toata Europa, dar niciodata nu a primit nici o recunoastere oficiala formala de papalitate. Doar Codex Juris Canonici din 1917 l-a scos din uz. [8]

In 1997, savantii au stabilit in mod obisnuit data finalizarii la 1140, dar aceasta precizie a datarii nu este posibila dupa bursa de la Anders Winroth. Cercetarile efectuate de Anders Winroth arata ca Decretum a existat in doua recenzii publicate. [10] Prima dateaza candva dupa 1139, in timp ce cea de-a doua dateaza cel tarziu la 1150. Exista cateva diferente majore intre cele doua recenzii:

  • Prima recenzie este o lucrare mai coerenta si mai analitica.
  • A doua recenzie pune un accent mult mai mare pe primatul papal si pe putere.
  • A doua recenzie include extrase de drept roman preluate direct din Corpus Juris Civilis , in timp ce prima recenzie nu demonstreaza o familiaritate substantiala cu jurisprudenta romana.

These differences led Winroth to conclude that Roman law was not as far developed by 1140 as scholars had previously thought. He has also argued that the second recension was due not to the original author of the first recension (whom he calls Gratian 1), but rather another jurist versed in Roman law. dr wolf gay porn [11] However, Winroth’s thesis of two Gratians remains controversial.[12]

An illustration from a 13th-century manuscript of the work, illustrating the kinds of blood relatives and common ancestry which made marriage impossible and contracted marriages null – it has since then been dispensed with so third cousins can now marry.[clarification needed]

This field of inquiry is hampered by ignorance of the compiler’s identity and the existence of manuscripts with abbreviated versions of the text or variant versions not represented by Winroth’s two recensions. One of these is the manuscript St. Gall, Stiftsbibliothek, 673 (=Sg), which some have argued contains the earliest known version (borrador) of the Decretum,[13] but which other scholars have argued contains an abbreviation of the first recension expanded with texts taken from the second recension.[14]

Gratian’s sources

Gratian’s sources were Roman law, the Bible, the writings of (or attributed to) the Church Fathers, papal decretals, the acts of church councils and synods. In most cases, Gratian did not obtain this material from a direct reading of the sources, but rather through intermediate collections. Thanks to the research of modern scholars – in particular, Charles Munier, Titus Lenherr, and Peter Landau – we now know that Gratian made use of a relatively small number of collections in the composition of most of the Decretum, these being:

  • Anselm (II) of Lucca’s canonical collection, originally compiled around 1083 and existing in four main recensions: A, B, Bb, and C. Peter Landau suggests that Gratian probably employed a manuscript containing an expanded form of recension A which he calls recension A’;
  • the Collectio tripartita attributed to Ivo of Chartres, usually thought to date to 1095;
  • the Panormia of Ivo of Chartres, also usually dated to 1095, although several scholars have argued for a later date and some even question Ivo’s authorship;
  • Gregory of St. Grisogono’s Polycarpus, completed some time after 1111;
  • the Collection in Three Books, composed some time between 1111 and 1139, though dated by some to around 1123;
  • the Glossa ordinaria to the Bible.

Other sources are known to have been used in the composition of particular sections of the Decretum:

  • Isidore of Seville’s Etymologies for DD. reddit rape porn 1-9 (the so-called Treatise on Laws);
  • Alger of Liege’s Liber de misericordia et iustitia for C. 1;
  • the Sententiae magistri A. for the De penitentia and some other sections.

Effect

Gratian himself named his work Concordia Discordantium Canonum – „Concord of Discordancies of Canons.” The name is fitting: Gratian tried to harmonize apparently contradictory canons with each other, by discussing different interpretations and deciding on a solution. This dialectical approach allowed for other law professors to work with the Decretum and to develop their own solutions and commentaries. These legalists are known as the decretists.

…the Concordance of Discordant Canons or Decretum served the function of giving the canonists a text like that of the Corpus Iuris Civilis for the civilians or the bible for the theologians. teyana taylor porn [15]

These commentaries were called glosses. Editions printed in the 15th, 16th or 17th centuries frequently included the glosses along with the text. Collections of glosses were called „gloss apparatus” or Lectura in Decretum (see also glossator). Systematic commentaries were called Summae. Some of these Summae were soon in circulation as well and obtained the same level of fame as the Decretum itself. Early commentators included Paucapalea and Magister Rolandus. The most important commentators were probably Rufin of Bologna (died before 1192) and Huguccio (died 1210). Less well-known was the commentary of Simon of Bisignano, which consisted of the Glosses on the Decretum and the Summa Simonis.

Peter Lombard borrowed and adapted from the Decretum when discussing penance in his Sentences (≈1150).[16]

Importance to Western law

The Decretum served as a model for 12th century jurists in the formation of Western law based on rational rules and evidence to replace barbaric laws which often involved trial by ordeal or battle.[17]

The Decretum was called „the first comprehensive and systematic legal treatise in the history of the West, and perhaps in the history of mankind- if by ‘comprehensive’ is meant the attempt to embrace virtually the entire law of a given polity, and if by ‘systematic’ is meant the express effort to that law as a single body, in which all parts are viewed as interacting to form a whole. japanese porn reddit Decretum made a direct contribution to the development of Western law in areas that it dealt with such as marriage, property and inheritance. Specific concepts included consent for marriage and wrongful intent in determining whether a certain act constituted a crime.[17]

References

  1. ^ Ap. Const. Providentissima Mater Ecclesia (by Pope Benedict XV, 27 May 1917)
  2. ^ a b Van Hove, Alphonse. „Johannes Gratian” in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 6. Robert Appleton Co. (New York), 1909.



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    Accessed 19 Sept. 2014. coy wilder porn

  3. ^ „ Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1880). „Franciscus Gratianus” . Encyclopaedia Britannica. XI (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. madison milstar porn p. 60.
  4. ^ * Noonan, John T. (1979). „Gratian Slept Here: The Changing Identity of the Father of the Systematic Study of Canon Law”. Traditio. 35: 145–172.
  5. ^ University of Texas at Austin, accessed June-25-2013
  6. ^ Dante, Paradiso Canto X, accessed 25 June 2013
  7. ^ Winroth (Cambridge 2004), 138
  8. ^ Crompton (2006):174
  9. ^ Hartmann & Pennington, History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, pg. 7.
  10. ^ Winroth, (Cambridge, 2004), 3
  11. ^ Winroth, (Cambridge, 2004), 146-74
  12. ^ See most recently Atria Larson, Master of Penance: Gratian and the Development of Penitential Thought and Law, ca. 1120-1215, Washington, DC: Catholic University Press, 2013, arguing for even greater complexity in the addition and adaptation of the text of the Decretum. vivian taylor porn
  13. ^ Carlos Larrainzar, ‘El borrador de la “Concordia” de Graciano: Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek MS 673 (=Sg)’, Ius Ecclesiae: Rivista internazionale di diritto canonico 11 (1999): 593-666
  14. ^ Titus Lenherr, „Ist die Handschrift 673 der St. Galler Stiftsbibliothek (Sg) der Entwurf zu Gratians Dekret?: Versuch einer Antwort aus Beobachtungen an D.31 und D.32” (unpublished paper) Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine; Anders Winroth, “Recent Work on the Making of Gratian’s Decretum,” Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law, n.s. 26 (2004-2006): 1-29; John Wei, “A Reconsideration of St. Gall, Stiftsbibliothek 673 (Sg) in light of the Sources of Distinctions 5-7 of the De penitentia,” Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law, n.s. 27 (2007): 141-80.
  15. ^ Donahue, Jr., A Crisis of Law?, pg. apostle porn 16.
  16. ^ See Appendix B in Larson, Master of Penance.
  17. ^ a b Woods, Thomas E. (2005). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, DC: Regency Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-038-7.

Bibliography

  • Brundage, James. Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. University of Chicago Press, 1990.
  • Brundage, James. black rape porn The Medieval Origins of the Legal Profession. University of Chicago Press, 2008.
  • Donahue, Charles, Jr. A Crisis of Law? Reflections on the Church and the Law Over the Centuries in The Jurist 65 (2005) I-30.
  • Hartmann, Wilfried, and Kenneth Pennington, edited. The History of Medieval Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140-1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2008).
  • Landau, Peter. „Gratians Arbeitsplan.” In Iuri canonico promovendo: Festschrift fur Heribert Schmitz zum 65. wii porn Geburtstag. Regensburg: F. Pustet, 1994. pp. 691–707.
  • Landau, Peter. „Neue Forschungen zu vorgratianischen Kanonessammlungen und den Quellen des gratianischen Dekrets.” Ius Commune 11 (1984): 1-29. Reprinted in idem. Kanones und Dekretalen. pp. gay muscle porn tumblr  177*-205*
  • Landau, Peter. „Quellen und Bedeutung des gratianischen Dekrets,” Studia et Documenta Historiae et Juris 52 (1986): 218-235. Reprinted in idem. Kanones und Dekretalen. pp. 207*-224*.
  • Larsen, Atria A. Master of Penance: Gratian and the Development of Penitential Thought and Law in the Twelfth Century, Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press 2014.
  • Larson, Atria A. forced bi porn Gratian’s Tractatus de penitentia: A New Latin Edition with English Translation Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2016.
  • Lenherr, Titus. Die Exkommunikations- und Depositionsgewalt der Haretiker bei Gratian und den Dekretisten bis zur Glossa ordinaria des Johannes Teutonicus. St. Ottilien: EOS Verlag, 1987.
  • Munier, Charles. Les sources patristiques du droit de l’eglise du VIIIe au XIIIe siecle. Mulhouse 1957.
  • Noonan, John T. rayla porn „Gratian slept here: the changing identity of the father of the systematic study of canon law.” Traditio 35 (1979), 145-172.
  • Wei, John C. Gratian the Theologian. Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2016.
  • Werckmeister, Jean. Le mariage. Decret de Gratien (causes 27 a 36). Paris: Cerf, 2011.
  • Winroth, Anders. The Making of Gratian’s Decretum. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Winroth, Anders. „Recent Work on the Making of Gratian’s Decretum,” Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law 26 (2008).

External links

  • Full Latin text from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
  • The new edition, currently only of parts of the shorter first recension of the Decretum, edited by Anders Winroth
  • Otto Vervaart’s introduction to Canon Law
  • Domus Gratiani
  • The Stephan Kuttner Institute of Medieval Canon Law in Munich